Development of Indole Alkaloid-Type Dual Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Against CTLA-4 and PD-L1 Based on Diversity-Enhanced Extracts

Yoshihide Suzuki, Keisuke Ichinohe, Akihiro Sugawara, Shinya Kida, Shinya Murase, Jing Zhang, Osamu Yamada, Toshio Hattori, Yoshiteru Oshima, Haruhisa Kikuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cancer immunotherapy involves the use of the immune system for cancer treatment. Recently, immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies have become integral for the treatment of some cancers. However, small molecules exhibit advantages over monoclonal antibody drugs, such as cell penetration, long half-life, and low manufacturing costs, and the possibility of oral administration. Thus, it is imperative to develop small-molecule immune checkpoint inhibitors. Previously, we have screened a library of synthetic indole-alkaloid-type compounds, which are produced by diversity-enhanced extracts of Japanese cornelian cherry, and reported that an unnatural pentacyclic compound inhibits CTLA-4 gene expression. In this study, immune checkpoint inhibitors with increased potency were developed by introducing substituents and conversion of functional groups based on the unnatural pentacyclic compound. The developed compounds suppressed not only CTLA-4 and PD-L1 gene expression but also protein expression on the cell surface. Their efficacy was not as potent as that of the existing small-molecule immune checkpoint inhibitors, but, to the best of our knowledge, the developed compounds are the first reported dual small-molecule inhibitors of CTLA-4 and PD-L1.

Original languageEnglish
Article number766107
JournalFrontiers in Chemistry
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov 8
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CTLA-4
  • PD-L1
  • diversity-enhanced extracts
  • immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • indole
  • natural products

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

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