ELISA methods have been developed for screening contamination of water resources by linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) or the most immediate degradation products, the long chain sulfophenyl carboxylates, SPCs. The assay uses antibodies raised through pseudoheterologous immunization strategies using an equimolar mixture of two immunogens (SFA-KLH and 13C13-SPC-KLH) prepared by coupling N-(4-alkylpnenyl)sulfonyl-3-aminopropanoic acid (SFA) andp-(1-carboxy-13-tridecyl)-phenylsulfonic acid (13C13-SPC) to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The immunizing haptens have been designed to address recognition versus two different epitopes of the molecule. The SFA hapten maximizes recognition of the alkyl moiety while preserving the complexity of the different alkyl chains present in the LAS technical mixture. The 13C13-SPC hapten addresses recognition of the common and highly antigenic phenylsulfonic group. The antisera raised using this strategy have been shown to be superior to those obtained through homologous immunization procedures using a single substance. By using an indirect ELISA format, LAS and long-chain SPCs can be detected down to 1.8 and 0.2 μg L-1, respectively. Coefficients of variation of 6 and 12% within and between assays, respectively, demonstrate immunoassay reproducibility. The assay can be used in media with a wide range of pH and ionic strength values. Preliminary experiments performed to assess matrix effects have demonstrated the potential applicability of the method as a screening tool to assess contamination by these types of surfactants in natural water samples.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry