Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging

Paulraj Kanmani, Jong Whan Rhim

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    117 Citations (Scopus)


    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6. μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)258-266
    Number of pages9
    JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul


    • Active packaging
    • Antimicrobial activity
    • Carrageenan
    • Composite film
    • Grapefruit seed extract

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Structural Biology
    • Biochemistry
    • Molecular Biology
    • Economics and Econometrics
    • Energy(all)


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