Determination of the Distribution of Cobalt-Chloro Complexes in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions at 298 K

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Knowledge of the distribution of metal-chloro complexes in hydrochloric acid solutions is fundamental for understanding the anion-exchange reaction. Anion-exchange separation allows ultrahigh purification during hydrometallurgical processes. However, at present the exchange reactions are not understood in detail. A more sophisticated purification needs improvement of the anion-exchange separation process. The process is based upon anion-exchange reactions and the distribution of metal-chloro complexes. The present work deals with cobalt-chloro complexes which exhibit a beautiful deep blue color in a concentrated hydrochloric acid solution. The intensity of the absorption attributed to the deep blue color is so strong that it is hard to obtain meaningful results by factor analysis. Another absorption band was chosen to be used in factor analysis and the attempt was successful. The number of cobalt-chloro complexes in hydrochloric acid solutions was determined to be three, and the cumulative formation constants were fitted to absorption spectra decomposed by factor analysis. During the optimization of the cumulative formation constants, a modified Debye–Hückel model for estimation of the activity coefficients of Cl - was used. It was found that there are three cobalt complexes [CoII(H2O)6]2+, [CoIICl(H2O)5]+, and [CoIICl4]2-, and the two cumulative formation constants were optimized such that log10β1=-0.861 and log10β4=-7.40. The geometries of the complexes are proposed by assignment of absorption bands using ligand field theory. A qualitative assessment of the relationship between the acquired distribution of cobalt-chloro complexes and the adsorption function of cobalt species from hydrochloric acid solutions to anion-exchange resin was made.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2021-2038
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Solution Chemistry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Dec 1


  • Anion-exchange reaction
  • Cobalt-chloro complexes
  • Cumulative formation constant
  • Factor analysis
  • Hydrochloric acid solutions
  • Molar attenuation coefficient
  • Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares
  • Principal component analysis
  • Thermodynamic model
  • Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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