Most previous research on public opinions about foreigners' entitlements to citizenship rights operationalizes the opinions by employing citizens' supports for entitlements to a comprehensive 'equal' citizenship right as an indicator. Other studies distinguish citizenship rights into social rights, political rights, and cultural rights, and they investigate determinants of supports for entitlement of foreign citizens to each of these rights. However, we need to investigate the combinations of rights citizens allow foreign citizens to be entitled to because entitlement to one right might not automatically include entitlement to other rights. From this viewpoint, the present research examines the modes of incorporation of immigrants citizens support using a latent class analysis. We analyzed public opinion survey data and found that there are four modes of incorporation of immigrants citizens support: multiculturalism, total exclusionism, segregation, and self-reliance. Even among total exclusionism some people support cultural rights. These modes of incorporation are distinguished on the basis of two axes: views on foreigners' entitlements to safety-net and views on their entitlements to local suffrage as well as to rights to be a local public employees. Citizens' supports for these modes are explained only a little by threat perceptions.
- Ethnic exclusionism
- Group threat theory
- Latent class analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Sociology and Political Science