Objectives: We examined the socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with alcohol consumption before and after pregnancy awareness in pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 91,828 pregnant women in a nationwide Japanese birth cohort study from 2011 to 2014. Alcohol consumption before and after pregnancy awareness, and sociodemographic behavioral characteristics were assessed through self-reported questionnaires. Determinants of alcohol consumption were investigated using logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of alcohol consumption before and after pregnancy awareness was 50.0% and 2.8%, respectively. Most women consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol. Before pregnancy awareness, high educational level (odds ratios [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.15), high household income (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.24), and smoking (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.65 to 1.90) were significantly associated with increased odds of alcohol consumption. After pregnancy awareness, older age (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.94) and smoking (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.88 to 6.37) were significantly associated with increased odds of alcohol consumption, and high education level (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.81) and high household income (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.89) were significantly associated with decreased odds of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: A half of women consumed alcohol before pregnancy awareness. Guidelines recommend abstinence from alcohol consumption in pregnant women for precaution, although influence of low to moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure on the fetus is inconclusive. Social-demographic characteristics differed between women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy awareness and women who continued alcohol after pregnancy awareness.
- Preconception health
- Socioeconomic factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health