A new type of experimental apparatus is developed to induce continuous diffusion of deuterium, in which an electrochemical cell for calorimetry and a vacuum chamber for nuclear measurement are divided by a Pd sheet. Continuous X rays ranging from 10 to 100 keV and neutron and excess heat production are observed using the apparatus. Titanium atoms are detected on the surface where deuterium atoms pass through on Pd cathodes after electrolysis. Quantitative discussion shows that the detected Ti atoms cannot be explained by contamination. An electron-induced nuclear reaction (EINR) model for explaining the obtained experimental results is introduced. Experimental support of the EINR model is demonstrated by using multilayer cathodes, in which a layer containing Ca is placed at the near surface of Pd, based on the EINR model.
- Diffusion of deuterium
- Electron-induced nuclear reaction
- Nuclear products
ASJC Scopus subject areas