Objective The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) survivors and to evaluate the impact of depressive symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 consecutive patients attending an outpatient clinic in Japan 1 year or more after curative treatment. To assess depressive symptoms and HRQOL, the participants were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Symptoms Scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, and EORTC QLQ-HCC18, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-HCC18 scores were compared between participants with and without depressive symptoms. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms among the HCC survivors was 28.3%. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the determinants of depressive symptoms included poor Karnofsky performance status (odds ratio [OR] = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.03-20.55, p = 0.04), poor liver function (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.11-10.0, p = 0.03), living alone (OR = 6.87, 95% CI = 2.53-18.63, p = 0.0002), and unemployment (OR = 5.18, 95% CI = 1.73-15.54, p = 0.003). Survivors with depressive symptoms had poorer HRQOL in almost all domains compared with survivors with no depressive symptoms. Conclusions This study suggests that after treatment, many HCC survivors experience depressive symptoms that are strongly associated with poorer HRQOL.
- cancer survivors
- depressive symptoms
- health-related quality of life
- hepatocellular carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health