Dense Graphene Monolith for High Volumetric Energy Density Li–S Batteries

Huan Li, Ying Tao, Chen Zhang, Donghai Liu, Jiayan Luo, Weichao Fan, Yue Xu, Youzhi Li, Conghui You, Zheng Ze Pan, Mingchun Ye, Zhengyu Chen, Zhang Dong, Da Wei Wang, Feiyu Kang, Jun Lu, Quan Hong Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the outstanding gravimetric performance of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries, their practical volumetric energy density is normally lower than that of lithium-ion batteries, mainly due to the low density of nanostructured sulfur as well as the porous carbon hosts. Here, a novel approach is developed to fabricate high-density graphene bulk materials with “ink-bottle-like” mesopores by phosphoric acid (H3PO4) activation. These pores can effectively confine the polysulfides due to their unique structure with a wide body and narrow neck, which shows only a 0.05% capacity fade per cycle for 500 cycles (75% capacity retention) for accommodating polysulfides. With a density of 1.16 g cm−3, a hybrid cathode containing 54 wt% sulfur delivers a high volumetric capacity of 653 mA h cm−3. As a result, a device-level volumetric energy density as high as 408 W h L−1 is achieved with a cathode thickness of 100 µm. This is a periodic yet practical advance to improve the volumetric performance of Li–S batteries from a device perspective. This work suggests a design principle for the real use Li–S batteries although there is a long way ahead to bridge the gap between Li–S batteries and Li–ion batteries in volumetric performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1703438
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jun 25
Externally publishedYes


  • graphene monolith
  • ink-bottle-like pores
  • lithium–polysulfide batteries
  • polysulfides
  • volumetric performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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