It is known that obese adipose tissues are hypoxic and express hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Although some studies have shown that the expression of HIF-1α in adipocytes induces glucose intolerance, the mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, we examined its effects on the development of type 2 diabetes by using adipocyte-specific HIF-1α knockout (ahKO) mice. ahKO mice showed improved glucose tolerance compared with wild type (WT) mice. Macrophage infiltration and mRNA levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were decreased in the epididymal adipose tissues of high fat diet induced obese ahKO mice. The results indicated that the obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation was suppressed in ahKO mice. In addition, in the ahKO mice, serum insulin levels were increased under the free-feeding but not the fasting condition, indicating that postprandial insulin secretion was enhanced. Serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were also increased in the ahKO mice. Interestingly, adiponectin, whose serum levels were increased in the obese ahKO mice compared with the obese WT mice, stimulated GLP-1 secretion from cultured intestinal L cells. Therefore, insulin secretion may have been enhanced through the adiponectin-GLP-1 pathway in the ahKO mice. Our results suggest that the deletion of HIF-1α in adipocytes improves glucose tolerance by enhancing insulin secretion through the GLP-1 pathway and by reducing macrophage infiltration and inflammation in adipose tissue.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)