Decrease in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein by plant stanol ester-containing spread: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Yasuhiko Homma, Ikuo Ikeda, Toshitsugu Ishikawa, Masao Tateno, Michihiro Sugano, Haruo Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The ester of plant stanols significantly reduces plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Western people. Effects of plant stanol ester-containing spread on plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Japanese subjects whose diet is low in fat and cholesterol. The effects of plant stanol ester on plasma levels of arteriosclerosis-promoting factors, namely remnants of triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), were also studied. The assessment of safety was also made. METHODS: One hundred five healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to one of three groups: placebo spread (n = 35), 2 g/d of plant stanol (3.4 g of stanol ester; n = 34), and 3 g/d of plant stanol (5.1 g of stanol ester; n = 36). Plasma levels of lipids were measured at start of the study, at 2 and 4 wk (end of trial), and at 8 wk (+4 wk). Plasma apoproteins, cholesterol in remnant-like particles which are equivalent to remnants of TG-rich lipoproteins (RLP-C), CETP mass, and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of the trial. Plasma levels of plant steroids and fat-soluble vitamins were also measured for the assessment of safety. RESULTS: Background and dietary composition did not differ among groups. Plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, apoB, apoE, CETP mass, and Ox-LDL were reduced significantly by 6.5%, 9.6%, 8.3%, 4.5%, 6.1%, and 20%, respectively, in the 2 g/d plant stanol group. Plasma levels of TC, LDL-C, apoB, CETP mass, and Ox-LDL were decreased significantly by 5.5%, 7.3%, 5.6%, 3.3%, and 19%, respectively, in the 3 g/d plant stanol group. Plasma levels of plant stanols, plant sterols, retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol did not change in any group, but levels of campestanol increased and α-tocopherol decreased slightly in the sitostanol groups. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced by the plant stanol ester-containing spread. The smaller reduction than in Western studies and the lack of dose dependency in this study might be due to the different basal diets. We concluded that plant stanol ester-containing spread is efficacious in reducing plasma LDL-C, apoB, CETP, and Ox-LDL and that 2 g/d plant stanol is adequate for Japanese people. No significant side effects were observed in any group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-374
Number of pages6
JournalNutrition
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein
  • Oxidized low-density lipoprotein
  • Plant stanol ester
  • Plasma apoproteins
  • Plasma lipids
  • Remnants of TG-rich lipoproteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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