The salinity of the mixed layer in the Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre (KERG) region (28°–35°N, 141°–160°E) was examined over a period of 20 years (1993–2012), and was found to show low-frequency variations on a decadal (~10 years) timescale: salinity decreased during the periods 1995–2001 and 2006–2009, but increased over the periods 2002–2005 and 2010–2012. Salinity anomalies at the sea surface during the warm season (June–October) influenced salinity in the following winter. These warm-season anomalies were caused by precipitation changes related to the number of low-pressure systems passing over the KERG associated with a westward elongation/eastward shrinkage of the summertime North Pacific subtropical high, which is driven by the Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern.
- Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre region
- Mixed layer salinity
- Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern
- Storm track
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