The Czochralski method is one of the very few melt growth techniques that are industry friendly when considering the combination of quality, dimensions, and cost of the produced crystals suitable for their commercialization in scintillation detectors. This method is one of the oldest and most developed crystal growth processes regarding an adequate understanding the physical phenomena observed during solidification process and its practical expansion especially in the industrial scale production. It allows controllable formation of single-crystalline cylindrical ingots of various inorganic scintillation materials. The review summarizes recent progress on the Czochralski growth of a number of scintillation materials. The oxide crystals are mainly considered including the Ce and Pr-doped RE3Al5O12, RE = Y, Lu, aluminum garnets and newly discovered ultraefficient Ce-doped Gd 3(Ga,Al)5O12 multicomponent garnet, high density PbWO4 and CdWO4 tungstates, Ce-doped RE 2SiO5, RE = Y, Gd, Lu, oxyorthosilicates and (Y,Lu)AlO3 aluminum perovskites and finally the classical Bi 4Ge3O12 scintillator. Additionally, the details of the growth of other practically important non-oxide crystals, namely the Ce and Eu-doped LiCaAlF6 neutron and ultraefficient Ce-doped LaBr 3 scintillators, are discussed. The potential of novel micro-pulling down growth method is briefly described in the combinatorial search for new scintillator materials. Selected luminescence and scintillation characteristics including the spectra and decay kinetics, light yield and radiation resistance are also illustrated and overviewed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)