Curative treatment of Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer with carbon ion beams using a hypofractionated regimen

Tadaaki Miyamoto, Masayuki Baba, Naoyoshi Yamamoto, Masashi Koto, Toshiyuki Sugawara, Tomoyasu Yashiro, Kennoshuke Kadono, Hidefumi Ezawa, Hirohiko Tsujii, Jun Etsu Mizoe, Kyosan Yoshikawa, Susumu Kandatsu, Takehiko Fujisawa

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    115 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: A phase I/II study on carbon ion radiotherapy for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first conducted between 1994 and 1999 and determined the optimal dose. Second, a Phase II study using the optimal dose was performed. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the local control and 5-year survival rates. Methods and Materials: Between April 1999 and December 2000, 50 patients with 51 primary lesions were treated. Using a fixed dose of 72 GyE in nine fractions over 3 weeks, the primary tumors were irradiated with carbon ion beams alone. The average age of the patients was 74.5 years. Thirty-three (66%) of these were medically inoperable. Local control and survival were determined by using the Kaplan-Meier method and the data were statistically processed by using the log-rank test. Results: All patients were observed for a minimum of 5 years or until death with a median follow-up time of 59.2 months (range, 6.0-83.0 months). The local control rate for all patients was 94.7%. The patients' 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 75.7% (IA: 89.4; IB: 55.1), and overall survival 50.0% (IA: 55.2; IB: 42.9). No toxic reactions in the lung greater than Grade 3 were detected. Conclusions: Carbon ion radiotherapy, a new treatment modality with superior benefits in terms of quality of life and activity of daily living, has been proven as a valid alternative to surgery for Stage I NSCLC and to offer particular benefits, especially for elderly and inoperable patients.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)750-758
    Number of pages9
    JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2007 Mar 1


    • Carbon ion beams
    • Heavy particles
    • Hypofraction
    • Non-small-cell lung cancer
    • Stage I

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Radiation
    • Oncology
    • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
    • Cancer Research


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