CSF cytokine profile in MOG-IgG+ neurological disease is similar to AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD but distinct from MS: A cross-sectional study and potential therapeutic implications

Kimihiko Kaneko, Sato Douglas Kazutoshi, Ichiro Nakashima, Ryo Ogawa, Tetsuya Akaishi, Yoshiki Takai, Shuhei Nishiyama, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Tatsuro Misu, Hiroshi Kuroda, Satoru Tanaka, Kyoichi Nomura, Yuji Hashimoto, Dagoberto Callegaro, Lawrence Steinman, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine profiles in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG-positive (MOG-IgG+) disease in adult and paediatric patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured 27 cytokines in the CSF of MOG-IgG+ disease in acute phase before treatment (n=29). The data were directly compared with those in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive (AQP4-IgG+) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) (n=20), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=20) and non-inflammatory controls (n=14). Results In MOG-IgG+ disease, there was no female preponderance and the ages were younger (mean 18 years, range 3-68; 15 were below 18 years) relative to AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD (41, 15-77) and MS (34, 17-48). CSF cell counts were higher and oligoclonal IgG bands were mostly negative in MOG-IgG+ disease and AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD compared with MS. MOG-IgG+ disease had significantly elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interferon-3, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α as compared with MS. No cytokine in MOG-IgG+ disease was significantly different from AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD. Moreover many elevated cytokines were correlated with each other in MOG-IgG+ disease and AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD but not in MS. No difference in the data was seen between adult and paediatric MOG-IgG+ cases. Conclusions The CSF cytokine profile in the acute phase of MOG-IgG+ disease is characterised by coordinated upregulation of T helper 17 (Th17) and other cytokines including some Th1-related and regulatory T cells-related ones in adults and children, which is similar to AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD but clearly different from MS. The results suggest that as with AQP4-IgG+ NMOSD, some disease-modifying drugs for MS may be ineffective in MOG-IgG+ disease while they may provide potential therapeutic targets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)927-936
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sep 1


  • aquaporin-4-IgG
  • cytokine profile
  • demyelinating disease
  • multiple sclerosis
  • myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG
  • neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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