Crystallization Behavior of Copper Smelter Slag During Molten Oxidation

Yong Fan, Etsuro Shibata, Atsushi Iizuka, Takashi Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Copper slag is composed of iron silicate obtained by smelting copper concentrate and silica flux. One of the most important criteria for the utilization of this secondary resource is the recovery of iron from the slag matrix to decrease the volume of dumped slag. The molten oxidation process with crushing magnetic separation appears to be a more sustainable approach and is based on directly blowing oxidizing gas onto molten slag after the copper smelting process. In the current study, using an infrared furnace, the crystallization behavior of the slag during molten oxidation was studied to better understand the trade-off between magnetite and hematite precipitations, as assessed by X-ray diffraction (using an internal standard). Furthermore, the crystal morphology was examined using a laser microscope and Raman imaging system to understand the iron oxide transformation, and the distribution of impurities such as Cu, Zn, As, Cr, and Pb were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, the reaction mechanism was investigated with a focus on the oxidation processes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2158-2164
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 25

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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