Sulfation is a widely observed biological reaction conserved from bacterium to human that plays a key role in various biological processes such as growth, development, and defense against adversities. Deficiencies due to the lack of the ubiquitous sulfate donor 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) are lethal in humans. A large group of enzymes called sulfotransferases catalyze the transfer reaction of sulfuryl group of PAPS to the acceptor group of numerous biochemical and xenochemical substrates. Four X-ray crystal structures of sulfotransferases have now been determined: cytosolic estrogen, hydroxysteroid, aryl sulfotransferases, and a sulfotransferase domain of the Golgi-membrane heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1. These have revealed the conserved core structure of the PAPS binding site, a common reaction mechanism, and some information concerning the substrate specificity. These crystal structures introduce a new era of the study of the sulfotransferases.
- X-ray crystal structures
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis