Critical condition for formation of accretion at gas-injection nozzle tip and cooling capacity of gas

Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Yuji Ogawa, Masayuki Arai, Shin Ya Kitamura, Tooru Matsumiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A study has been made on the formation of accretion at the nozzle tip during submerged gas injection into Fe-C liquid metal. Experiments in 1 ton heating furnace were carried out to obtain data required for the initiation of the accretion and the followings were resulted: The inner diameter of gas injection nozzle and the solidus temperature of Fe-C were found to be determining factors for the critical condition for the formation of the accretion. By using Ohguchi's heat balance equation for the stability of the accretion, transfer coefficient of the heat from hot metal to the accretion was estimated to be 63 ϵ0.3. Furthermore, by using modified Ohguchi's heat balance equation including reaction heat term, the effective rate of reaction heat was obtained, which is 0. 03 for CO2 and 0. 4∼1 for C3H8. Plant scale experiments were also conducted in 270 LD convertor at Muroran Works in order to examine the effect of the blowing of CO2-C3H8 gas mixture on the cooling for the protection of bottom nozzle and it was found that almost all of the reaction heat of C3H8 is contributed to the cooling, which supports the above mentioned result of 1 ton scale experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-416
Number of pages8
JournalTetsu-To-Hagane/Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Aug 1


  • Accretion
  • Cooling capacity
  • Gas injection
  • Heat transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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