Creation of Neuromuscular Stimulation Data for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)—Control of Paralyzed Elbow Movements—

Akira Naito, Michihiro Yajima, Hidehiko Fukamachi, Koji Ushikoshi, Masayoshi Ichie, Yasunobu Handa, Nozomu Hoshimaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this study, we programmed neuromuscular stimulation data for the functional electrical stimulation (FES) to control the paralyzed elbow movements. The activities of the elbow flexors and extensors during movements of the elbow flexion and extension in normal subjects were analyzed by electromyography (EMG) and the following results were observed. 1) In the elbow flexors, all muscles were active during both flexion and extension of the elbow. 2) In the elbow extensors, the triceps brachii was almost inactive except at maximum extension of the elbow. Based upon EMG analyses, neuromuscular stimulation data for FES were programmed. With these data, we tried to control elbow movements in two C4 quadriplegics by FES. Consequently, the following results were obtained. 1) The elbow movements, which were nearly the same movements at EMG analysis, were reproduced by FES. 2) Movements of the elbow flexion and extension were controlled when the forearm was set on the balanced forearm orthosis (BFO). 3) With BFO and the respiration-controlled FES system, they were able to obtain some activities of daily living, such as drinking canned juice, by means of simultaneous control of movements of the elbow, wrist and finger.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-55
Number of pages6
Journaljapanese journal of medical electronics and biological engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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