We investigated the effect of charge on the membrane morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of various mixtures containing charged lipids. We observed the membrane morphologies by fluorescent and confocal laser microscopy in lipid mixtures consisting of a neutral unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC)], a neutral saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)], a charged unsaturated lipid [dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG(-))], a charged saturated lipid [dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG(-))], and cholesterol (Chol). In binary mixtures of neutral DOPC-DPPC and charged DOPC-DPPG(-), spherical vesicles were formed. On the other hand, pore formation was often observed with GUVs consisting of DOPG(-) and DPPC. In a DPPC-DPPG(-)-Chol ternary mixture, pore-formed vesicles were also frequently observed. The percentage of pore-formed vesicles increased with the DPPG(-) concentration. Moreover, when the head group charges of charged lipids were screened by the addition of salt, pore-formed vesicles were suppressed in both the binary and ternary charged lipid mixtures. We discuss the mechanisms of pore formation in charged lipid mixtures and the relationship between phase separation and the membrane morphology. Finally, we reproduce the results seen in experimental systems by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 2015 Dec 23|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics