Core-Level Spectroscopy to Probe the Oxidation State of Single Europium Atoms

Luiz H.G. Tizei, Ryo Nakanishi, Ryo Kitaura, Hisanori Shinohara, Kazu Suenaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The valence of individual europium atoms confined in carbon nanotubes is successfully measured by using core-level electron energy loss spectroscopy. Changes in the oxidation state at the atomic scale have been observed in Eu atomic chains exposed to oxygen. A transitory behavior has been identified where multiple atoms show a signal consistent with a sum of Eu2+ and Eu3+. This indicates that single atoms change their valence state multiple times during the reaction, suggesting that oxidation in confined spaces and with extra energy input (from the electron beam) might not be a simple one step electron transfer event.

Original languageEnglish
Article number197602
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2015 May 15

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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