The first total synthesis of gymnocin-A (1), a cytotoxic polycyclic ether isolated from a notorious red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia mikimotoi, has been accomplished. The synthesis relies heavily on the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling-based methodology to assemble the tetradecacyclic polyether skeleton. Convergent union of the GHI (5) and KLMN (6) rings, both of which were prepared from a common intermediate 7, and the subsequent ring closure of the J ring delivered the GHIJKLMN ring. The crucial coupling between the ABCD and FGHIJKLMN ring fragments (3 and 4, respectively) and stereoselective installation of the C17 hydroxyl group, followed by cyclization of the E ring gave rise to the tetradecacyclic polyether skeleton 2. Finally, incorporation of the 2-methyl-2-butenal side chain completed the total synthesis of gymnocin-A. The convergent nature of the synthesis, which employs three fragments of comparable complexity, is well-suited for preparation of various structural analogues of gymnocin-A to explore the structure-activity relationship. The results of preliminary structure-activity relationship studies of several synthetic analogues are also provided.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry