Control of manipulators with free-joints via the averaging method

Takahiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


A manipulator with free joints is a class of under-actuated mechanisms. Control of such systems is one of major topics in robotics and control engineering. In this paper, we apply the averaging method to manipulators connected by free joints and describe their behaviors in response to periodic inputs. We analyze 2R and 3R free-joint manipulators and show that each system has invariant manifolds defined by an energy-like conserved quantity. We also develop a control method via feedback modulation of the input amplitude to reach a desired invariant manifold. The effectiveness of the method is verified by computer simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2998-3005
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA. Part 4 (of 4) - Albuquerque, NM, USA
Duration: 1997 Apr 201997 Apr 25

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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