To date, no anatomic or biomechanical studies have been conducted to clarify what size of a Hill-Sachs lesion needs to be treated. Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested in a custom device. With the arm in maximum external rotation, horizontal extension, and 0°, 30°, and 60° of abduction, the location of the entire rim of the glenoid was marked on the humeral head using a Kirschner wire. The distance from the contact area to the footprint of the rotator cuff with the arm in 60° of abduction was measured by a digital caliper. With an increase in arm elevation, the glenoid contact shifted from the inferomedial to the superolateral portion of the posterior aspect of the humeral head, creating a zone of contact (glenoid track). The medial margin of the glenoid track was located 18.4 ± 2.5 mm medial from the footprint, which was equivalent to 84% ± 14% of the glenoid width. A Hill-Sachs lesion has a risk of engagement and dislocation if it extends medially over the medial margin of the glenoid track.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine