Various indices have been reported regarding heart rate variability (HRV), but many of them correlate to each other, suggesting the existence of the underlying common factors. We tried to extract factors underlying HRV indices and investigated their features. Using big data of 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG) called Allostatic State Mapping by Ambulatory ECG Repository (ALLSTAR), we calculated 4 time-domain, 4 frequency-domain, and 2 nonlinear HRV indices and the amplitude of cyclic variation of heart rate (Acv) in 113,793 men and 140,601 women with sinus rhythm ECG. Factor analysis revealed that there were two factors with eigenvalue ≥ 1 by which 91% of variance among the HRV indices was explained. Factor 1 that was strongly contributed by very-low frequency, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) components and Acv and it increased with age from 0 to 20 year, then decreased until 65 year, and increased slightly after 80 year. It also increased with daily physical activity at the mild level of activity. Factor 2 that was contributed strongly by scaling exponent α1 and LF-to-HF ratio increased with age until 35 year, plateaued between 35 and 55 year, and decreased thereafter. It also increased with mild to moderate physical activity. HRV indices are constituted by two common factors relating to cardiac vagal function and complexity of heart rate dynamics, respectively, which differ in the relationships with age and physical activity from each other. Although many indices have been proposed for HRV, their constituent factors may be a few.
- Factor analysis
- Heart rate variability
- Physical activity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Information Systems
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering