Concept and P/M fabrication of functionally gradient materials

Akira Kawasaki, Ryuzo Watanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

186 Citations (Scopus)


Graded structures may be found in ordinary engineering materials from former days: however, if one has begun to tailor the intentional gradient of composition and/or microstructure in a material in order to achieve the desired functions and properties, the material is known as a Functionally Gradient Material (FGM). The FGM has great potential for applications in many fields by using gradient on chemical, biochemical, physical and mechanical properties. This paper briefly describes the concept of FGM, with special reference to the large progress of research works on thermal barrier materials where the role of thermal stress relaxation function has been emphasized. Powder metallurgical processing of this type of FGM is reviewed on the basis of recent activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-83
Number of pages11
JournalCeramics International
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Jan 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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