The geometric and electronic structures of NaN, CuN, and AgN metal clusters are systematically studied based on the density functional theory over a wide range of cluster sizes 2N75. A remarkable similarity is observed between the optimized geometric structures of alkali and noble metal clusters over all of the calculated cluster sizes N. The most stable structures are the same for the three different metal clusters for approximately half the cluster sizes N considered in this study. Even if the most stable structures are different, the same types of structures are obtained when the metastable structures are also considered. For all of the three different metal clusters, the cluster shapes change in the order of linear, planar, opened, and closed structures with increasing N. This structural-type transition leads to a deviation from the monotonic increase in the specific volume with N. A remarkable similarity is also observed for the N dependence of the cluster energy E (N) for the most stable geometric structures. The amplitude of this energy difference is larger in the two noble metal clusters than in the alkali metal cluster. This is attributed to the contribution of d electrons to the bonds. The magic number is explicitly defined with a new criterion in the framework of total energy calculations. In the case of NaN, a semiquantitative comparison between the experimental abundance spectra [Knight, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2141 (1984)] and the total energy calculations is carried out. The changing aspect of the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from N=2 to N=75 is presented for the three different metal clusters. The feature of the bulk density of states already appears at N=75 for all of three clusters. With increasing N, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap clearly exhibits an odd-even alternation and converges to 0. Although there is a similarity in the N dependence of the HOMO-LUMO gap between the three metal clusters, it is much stronger between the two noble metal clusters. The growth aspect of the d band below the Fermi level of the noble metal clusters with increasing N is presented. A good correspondence is observed in the d characteristic of the electronic states between the cluster composed of 75 atoms and the bulk metal. The similarities observed in the N dependence of the geometric structures and E(N)s originate from the similarity in that of the electronic structures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry