We found unique behaviors among platelets within a few minutes of the intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice. Platelets accumulated primarily in the liver at lower doses of LPS, but at higher doses they accumulated largely in the lungs. When the platelets accumulated in these organs were degraded, there was a rapid anaphylactoid shock. The platelet response depended on the strain of mouse and on the source of LPS. Of various LPSs tested, the LPS from the smooth type of Klebsiella O3 (KO3-S LPS) was the most potent at inducing the platelet response and shock. K-76 monocarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of complement C5, effectively prevented the KO3-S LPS-induced degradation (but not accumulation) of platelets and the ensuing rapid shock in BALB/c mice. Moreover, in DBA/2 mice (which are deficient in complement C5), Platelets accumulated in the lungs and liver in response to KO3-S LPS but soon returned to the circulation without degradation, and there was no rapid shock. The LPS from the rough type of KO3 induced an accumulation of platelets in the liver and lungs but not a degradation of platelets. On the basis of these results and those reported by other investigators, we propose that in the platelet response to LPS, the lectin pathway to form C3 convertase from C4 and C2 is involved in the rapid accumulation of platelets in the liver and lungs and that the pathway from C5 to C9 is involved in the destruction of platelets and the consequent anaphylactoid shock.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases