The main types of analytical procedures used in thermal-lens spectroscopy and microscopy, which are based on photometric reactions in (i) aqueous solutions, (ii) organo-aqueous mixtures, (iii) polymer-containing (nonionic surfactants or polyethylene glycol) aqueous solutions, (iv) water-organic extraction systems, and (v) two-phase aqueous extraction systems, were compared from the viewpoint of both reproducibility and sensitivity. This comparison was made by examples of the determination of cobalt and iron for batch conditions, flow determination, and detection in HPLC, flow-injection analysis (FIA), and μFIA. It was revealed that for all five types, the real analytical efficiency (a decrease in the limit of detection (LOD) as compared to spectrophotometry) is primarily determined by the reaction conditions, provided that excitation of the thermal lens is the same. Aqueous solutions provide more efficient optimization of reaction conditions than do those in organo-aqueous solutions and solvent-extraction water-organic mixtures. The best results are achieved when shifting to polymer-containing aqueous solutions and two-phase aqueous extraction systems, which decreases in the LODs by a factor of 20 - 100%.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry