Leptospira was isolated from environmental water in central Japan using selective medium comprising five antibiotics, namely sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, amphotericin B, fosfomycin, and 5-fluorouracil. Of 100 water samples 57 (57%) were culture-positive and 50 pure cultures were isolated. Of the 50 cultures isolated from water 48 were classified into a saprophytic clade on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. However, it was previously reported that isolates from soil in Japan belonged to pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic clades, the current findings suggest less diversity of Leptospira species in environmental water than that in soil in Japan.
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