We examined antibacterial activities of 4 kinds of macrolides (MLs), erythromycin (EM), clarithromycin (CAM), azithromycin (AZM) and rokitamycin (RKM), against 4 bacterial species of clinical strains isolated in 2004. Bacterial isolates used were 51 strains of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), 20 of Streptococcus pyogenes, 68 of Streptococcus agalactiae, and 120 of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Macrolide resistance genes, ermB and mefE, in macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae, and all of pneumococci were analyzed by PCR. Antimicrobial activities against macrolide-susceptible MSSA of EM and CAM, were more potent than those of RKM. By contrast, against S. pneumoniae, RKM was more effective than EM, CAM and AZM. Against S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae, 4 antibiotics showed similar antimicrobial activities. Twelve, 1 and 2 strains of MSSA, S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae, respectively, were resistant to EM, CAM and AZM, whereas RKM was active to almost, but not quite, of them. Among 120 strains of S. pneumoniae, 76 (63.3%) were resistant to EM (MIC; ≧0.5 μg/mL), and 23, 15 and 28 strains were highly resistant (MIC; >128 μg/mL) to EM, CAM and AZM, respectively. By contrast, for RKM, there were far fewer resistant strains, and there was no highly resistant strain. PCR analyses of macrolide-resistant genes revealed that 1 resistant strain of S. pyogenes and 2 of S. agalactiae carried mefE and ermB, respectively. In the case of S. pneumoniae, 59, 19 and 5 strains, respectively, carried ermB, mefE and both ermB and mefE. We also studied about bactericidal activities and postantibiotic effects (PAE) of MLs using macrolide-susceptible, and ermB- and mefE-carrying S. pneumoniae, and observed morphological alterations of the strains treated with the drugs by a scanning electron microscope. It was demonstrated that RKM had superior bactericidal activities and PAE than other 3 drugs, and potent destructive effects to all of 3 strains.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics|
|Publication status||Published - 2007 Feb|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases