The benefits of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) have mostly been evaluated in younger patients. Although favorable outcomes of allo-HCT over chemotherapy have been reported with the use of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens in elderly patients with AML in CR1, information is still limited, especially on the effects of cytogenetic risks and donor sources. We collected data from AML patients aged 50 to 70 years who achieved CR1, and compared the outcome in 152 patients who underwent allo-HCT in CR1 (HCT group) to that in 884 patients who were treated with chemotherapy (CTx group). The cumulative incidence of relapse in the HCT group was significantly lower than that in the CTx group (22% versus 62%). Both overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were significantly improved in the HCT group (OS: 62% versus 51%, P = .012), not only in the whole population, but also in the intermediate-risk group. Among patients who had a suitable related donor, the outcomes in the HCT group were significantly better than those in the CTx group. The introduction of appropriate treatment strategies that include allo-HCT may improve the outcome in elderly patients with AML in CR1.
- Acute myelogenous leukemia
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Elderly patients
- First complete remission
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