Comparability of TOEFL CBT essay prompts: Response-mode analyses

Hunter Breland, Yong Won Lee, Eiji Muraki

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    Eighty-three Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) writing prompts administered via computer-based testing between July 1998 and August 2000 were examined for differences attributable to the response mode (handwriting or word processing) chosen by examinees. Differences were examined statistically using polytomous logistic regression. A variable measuring English-language ability (ELA) was developed from the multiple-choice components of the TOEFL and used as a matching variable. Although there was little observed difference in mean writing scores, when examinees were matched on ELA, small differences were observed in effect sizes consistently favoring the handwriting response mode. This difference favoring the handwriting response mode occurred for all of the writing prompts analyzed, suggesting a general effect for response mode. Differences for individual writing prompts were small, however.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)577-595
    Number of pages19
    JournalEducational and Psychological Measurement
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2005 Aug


    • Comparability
    • Computer-based writing assessment
    • Essay prompts
    • Fairness
    • Logistic regression
    • Proportional odds ratio model
    • Response mode

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Education
    • Developmental and Educational Psychology
    • Applied Psychology
    • Applied Mathematics


    Dive into the research topics of 'Comparability of TOEFL CBT essay prompts: Response-mode analyses'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this