Combustion emissions from nh3 fuel gas turbine power generation demonstrated

Osamu Kurata, Norihiko Iki, Takahiro Inoue, Takayuki Matsunuma, Taku Tsujimura, Hirohide Furutani, Hideaki Kobayashi, Akihiro Hayakawa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

A massive influx of renewable energy is required in order to mitigate global warming. Although H2 is a renewable medium, its storage and transportation in large quantities has some problems. NH3 fuel, however, is an H2 energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although NH3 fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an NH3 fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because the combustion efficiency was unacceptably low. The recent demand for H2 energy carriers has revived the interest of NH3 fuel; however an actual design setup for NH3 fuel gas turbine power generation has not been attempted. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, in collaboration with Tohoku University successfully achieved NH3-kerosene gas turbine power generation in 2014, and NH3 fuel gas turbine power generation in 2015. The facility consists of an NH3 fuel-supply system, NH3 gas compressor, 50 kWe-class micro gas turbine, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx-reduction apparatus, and loading equipment. The micro gas turbine utilizes a diffusion combustor to stabilize the flame and a regenerative heat exchanger to improve the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycle. Considering that the laminar burning velocity of NH3/air is one-fifth that of CH4/air, the combustion intensity of NH3/air is very low. In addition, NH3 has been thought of as a fuel N additive in the study of NOx formation. Although NOx reduction is desirable in the combustion process, low NOx combustion technology is difficult because NH3 has been thought of as the source of fuel-NO. Hence, in order to evaluate the performance of NH3 fuel gas turbine power generation, it is important to focus on the combustion stability and combustion emissions. Earlier, we have reported the combustion emission characteristics of NH3 fuel gas turbines; in the case of NH3/air, concentrations of NO and unburnt NH3 strongly depend on the combustor inlet temperature, and in the case of NH3/CH4/air, the concentration of NO at a constant electric power output depends on the NH3 ratio in the mixture. This report additionally shows that other than NO, the combustion emissions of NO2 and N2O also decrease considerably at high electric power output. These results arise from the restriction of the eigen balance of fuel, air, and heat, because the compressor and turbine are connected by a single shaft in the gas turbine. In the next step, the element test was carried out using a combustor test rig to develop a low NOx combustor. It is difficult to characterize combustion emissions with the former parameters in the case of a combustor test rig, because there is no restriction of the quantity of fuel, air, and combustor inlet temperature. Thus, this paper reports the combustion emissions of NH3 fuel gas turbine re-characterized with respect to the other parameters, such as fuel flow rate, overall equivalence ratio, combustor pressure, and combustion temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNH3 Energy+- Enabling Optimized, Sustainable Energy and Agriculture 2017 - Topical Conference at the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting
PublisherAIChE
Pages162-170
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9781510857858
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1
EventNH3 Energy+- Enabling Optimized, Sustainable Energy and Agriculture 2017 - Topical Conference at the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting - Minneapolis, United States
Duration: 2017 Oct 292017 Nov 3

Publication series

NameNH3 Energy+- Enabling Optimized, Sustainable Energy and Agriculture 2017 - Topical Conference at the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting
Volume2017-October

Other

OtherNH3 Energy+- Enabling Optimized, Sustainable Energy and Agriculture 2017 - Topical Conference at the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting
CountryUnited States
CityMinneapolis
Period17/10/2917/11/3

Keywords

  • Combustion emission
  • Gas turbine power generation
  • NH3 fuel
  • NO
  • NO
  • NO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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  • Cite this

    Kurata, O., Iki, N., Inoue, T., Matsunuma, T., Tsujimura, T., Furutani, H., Kobayashi, H., & Hayakawa, A. (2017). Combustion emissions from nh3 fuel gas turbine power generation demonstrated. In NH3 Energy+- Enabling Optimized, Sustainable Energy and Agriculture 2017 - Topical Conference at the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting (pp. 162-170). (NH3 Energy+- Enabling Optimized, Sustainable Energy and Agriculture 2017 - Topical Conference at the 2017 AIChE Annual Meeting; Vol. 2017-October). AIChE.