Both exercise training (Ex) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic tempol have antihypertensive and renal protective effects in rodent models of several hypertensions. We recently reported that Ex increases nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression levels of endothelial and neuronal NO synthase (eNOS and nNOS) in the kidney and aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). We also found that endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upregulates the expression levels of eNOS and nNOS in SHR. To elucidate the mechanism of the Ex-upregulated NO system in the kidney, we examined the additive effect of Ex and tempol on the renal NO system in SHR and WKY. Our data showed that, in SHR, both Ex and tempol increase the levels of H2O2 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) in plasma and urine. We also observed an increased renal NOS activity and upregulated expression levels of eNOS and nNOS with decreased NADPH oxidase activity. The effects of the combination of Ex and tempol on these variables were cumulate in SHR. On the other hand, we found that Ex increases these variables with increased renal NADPH oxidase activity, but tempol did not change these variables or affect the Ex-induced upregulation in the activity and expression of NOS in WKY. The SOD activity in the kidney and aorta was activated by tempol only in SHR, but not in WKY; whereas Ex increased SOD activity only in the aorta in both SHR and WKY. These results indicate that Ex-induced endogenous H2O2 produced in the blood vessel and other organs outside of the kidney may be carried to the kidney by blood flow and stimulates the NO system in the kidney.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine