OBJECTIVES: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an emerging complication after lobectomy for lung cancer. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence, main risk factors and clinical features of postoperative CPA in lung cancer patients. METHODS: This study included lung cancer patients treated by lobectomy and with no previous history of thoracic surgery or coexistent aspergillosis at the time of surgery. The cumulative incidence of CPA was determined using death as a competing risk. Furthermore, the identified lung cancer patients were divided into CPA and non-CPA groups to compare their preoperative clinical features and to identify the risk factors of postoperative CPA by univariable and multivariable analyses. We also analysed the clinical features of CPA patients after diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 475 lung cancer patients. Of these, 17 patients (3.6%) developed CPA after the lobectomy. The cumulative postoperative incidence rate of CPA was 2.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-3.8%] at 5 years and 7.9% (95% CI, 3.0-13.0%) at 10 years. There were significantly more men (P = 0.007), smokers (P = 0.002) and comorbid chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (P = 0.008) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) (P = 0.009) patients in the CPA group than in the non-CPA group. Multivariable analysis identified comorbid COPD (P = 0.0019) and ILD (P = 0.0003) as significant risk factors. An antifungal treatment response was obtained in 6 patients (35%). The 1-year survival rate was 47% (follow-up periods, interquartile range: 3-78 months), and 5 of the total of 11 deaths were due to CPA. CONCLUSIONS: Through the present retrospective study, CPA seems to be a common sequel to lobectomy in lung cancer patients, and COPD and ILD represent strong risk factors of postoperative CPA. Because of the poor clinical outcome of lung cancer patients who develop CPA after lobectomy, careful follow-up using several examinations and chest radiographs to make CPA diagnosis may be essential.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
- Interstitial lung disease
- Lung cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine