Chemical vapor deposition of N-doped graphene and carbon films: The role of precursors and gas phase

Yoshikazu Ito, Christos Christodoulou, Marco Vittorio Nardi, Norbert Koch, Hermann Sachdev, Klaus Müllen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    107 Citations (Scopus)


    Thermally induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to study the formation of nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon films on copper from aliphatic nitrogen-containing precursors consisting of C1- and C 2-units and (hetero)aromatic nitrogen-containing ring systems. The structure and quality of the resulting films were correlated to the influence of the functional groups of the precursor molecules and gas phase composition. They were analyzed with SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of (N-doped) graphene was confirmed by the 2D mode of the Raman spectra. The isolated graphene films obtained from nitrogen-containing precursors reveal a high conductivity and transparency compared to standard graphene CVD samples. Precursors with amine functional groups (e.g., methylamine) can lead to a direct formation of graphene even without additional hydrogen present in the gas phase. This is not observed for, e.g., methane under comparable CVD conditions. Therefore, the intermediate gas phase species (e.g., amine radicals) can significantly enhance the graphene film growth kinetics. Kinetic and thermodynamic effects can be invoked to discuss the decay of the precursors.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3337-3346
    Number of pages10
    JournalACS Nano
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2014 Apr 22


    • CVD
    • N-doping
    • Raman spectroscopy
    • formation mechanism
    • graphene
    • precursor chemistry

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Materials Science(all)
    • Engineering(all)
    • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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