Chemical modification of pyroclastic rock by hot water: An experimental investigation of mass transport at the fluid-solid interface

Junko Hara, N. Tsuchiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Hydrothermal water-(pyroclastic) rock interactions were examined using flow-through experiments to deduce the effect of mass transport phenomena on the reaction process. A series of experiments were conducted over the temperature range 75-250°C, with a constant temperature for each experiment, and at saturated vapour pressure, to estimate the apparent rate constants as a function of temperature. Based on the chemistry of analysed solutions, the water-rock interaction in the experiments was controlled by diffusion from the reaction surface and by the existence of a surface layer at the rock-fluid interface, which regulated the chemical reaction rate. The reaction progress depended to a high degree on flow velocity and temperature conditions, with element abundances in the fluid significantly affected by these factors. Mass transport coefficients for diffusion from the rock surface to the bulk solution have been estimated. Ca is selectively depleted under lower temperature conditions (T < 150°C), whereas Na is greatly depleted under higher temperature conditions (T > 150°C), and K reaction rates are increased when flow velocity increases. Using these conditions, specific alkali and alkali earth cations were selectively leached from mineral surfaces. The 'surface layer' comprised a 0.5-1.8 mm boundary film on the solution side (the thickness of this layer has no dependence on chemical character) and a reaction layer. The reaction layer was composed of a Si, Al-rich cation-leached layer, whose thickness was dependent on temperature, flow velocity and reaction length. The reaction layer varied in thickness from about 10-4 to 10-7 mm under high temperature/low fluid velocity and low temperature/high fluid velocity conditions, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-38
Number of pages15
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Boundary film
  • Hydrothermal alteration
  • Incongruent dissolution
  • Mass transport
  • Reaction layer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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