Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, and siamang milk or colostrum

Tadasu Urashima, Go Odaka, Sadaki Asakuma, Yusuke Uemura, Kohta Goto, Akitsugu Senda, Tadao Saito, Kenji Fukuda, Michael Messer, Olav T. Oftedal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk or colostrum of four great ape species (chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)) and one lesser ape species (siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)), and their chemical structures were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc) were found exclusively (gorilla and siamang) or predominately (chimpanzee, bonobo, and orangutan) over those containing the type I unit (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc). In comparison, type I oligosaccharides predominate over type II oligosaccharides in human milk, whereas nonprimate milk almost always contains only type II oligosaccharides. The milk or colostrum of the great apes contained oligosaccharides bearing both N -glycolylneuraminic acid and N -acetylneuraminic acid, whereas human milk contains only the latter. Great ape milk, like that of humans, contained fucosylated oligosaccharides whereas siamang milk did not. Since these analyses are based on a limited number of individuals, further research on additional samples of great and lesser ape milk is needed to confirm phylogenetic patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-508
Number of pages10
JournalGlycobiology
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Keywords

  • Apes
  • Bonobo
  • Chimpanzee
  • Gorilla
  • Milk oligosaccharides
  • Orangutan
  • Siamang

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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