Characterizing graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy

M. S. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, R. Saito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

494 Citations (Scopus)


Recent advances in Raman spectroscopy for characterizing graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes are reviewed comparatively. We first discuss the first-order and the double-resonance (DR) second-order Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. Then, we review phonon-softening phenomena in Raman spectra as a function of gate voltage, which is known as the Kohn anomaly. Finally, we review exciton-specific phenomena in the resonance Raman spectra of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Raman spectroscopy of SWNTs has been especially useful for understanding many fundamental properties of all sp2 carbons, given SWNTs can be either semiconducting or metallic depending on their geometric structure, which is denoted by two integers (n,m).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-108
Number of pages20
JournalAnnual Review of Condensed Matter Physics
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jul

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterizing graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this