Characterization of metallic nanoparticles based on the abundant usages of X-ray techniques

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientists for over a century because of their huge potential in nanotechnology. Today, these materials can be synthesized and modified with various structures which allow them to be applied widely in numerous branches of science. Nanomaterials could be single or multiple metals and have copious kinds of size, shape, and structure and, thus, lead to profusely beneficial properties. Understanding nanoparticle characteristics helps in validating the synthesis, deciphering the morphology evolution, improving the synthesis protocols, and comprehending the potential applications of nanoparticles. Among characterization technologies, X-ray techniques provide assessment of composition, crystal structure, surface state, bonding environment, and physical properties. For example, X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used for the determinations of crystal phase and crystallinity of nanoparticles; X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to characterize unoccupied electronic states, the chemical composition, and bonding environment in nanoparticles; and many other X-ray techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and smallangle X-ray scattering (SAXS) have revealed information on nanoparticle characteristics. This chapter will give an overview of the utilizations of X-ray techniques for metallic nanoparticle characterization as well as discuss the classification of X-ray techniques based on their general usages and principles. The assessments of nanoparticle characteristics using X-ray techniques will be concretely described.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Nanoparticles
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages28
ISBN (Electronic)9783319153384
ISBN (Print)9783319153377
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sep 18
Externally publishedYes


  • Characterization
  • Metal
  • Nanoparticles
  • X-ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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