Characterization of air-formed surface oxide film on Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy surface using XPS and AES

Y. Tanaka, M. Nakai, T. Akahori, M. Niinomi, Y. Tsutsumi, H. Doi, T. Hanawa

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113 Citations (Scopus)


The surface oxide film on a Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (TNTZ) was precisely characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to understand the composition and chemical state of the surface oxide film of TNTZ. For comparison, the component metals, titanium, niobium, tantalum, and zirconium, were also characterized to consider the effect of those on the formation of the surface oxide film on their alloy. The characterization of the surface oxide films on TNTZ and its component revealed the following issues. The surface oxide film on TNTZ consists of a composite oxide that contains titanium, niobium, tantalum, and zirconium but forms continuous layer and is very thin, ca. 3.7 nm. The oxide film is not completely oxidized because it contains various valences of cations. In particular, the oxidation of tantalum is inhibited in the oxide. Tantalum is enriched in the substrate in TNTZ just under the surface oxide because of this inhibition in the oxidation. The formation of the surface oxide film in TNTZ is predominantly governed by titanium. The preferential oxidation of an element is not always dependent on the initial oxidation potential of that element, the relationship between the oxidation energy from a smaller valence to a larger valence, and the dehydration process. In other words, a complicated competition governs the resultant composition of surface oxide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2111-2116
Number of pages6
JournalCorrosion Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Aug 1


  • A. Titanium
  • B. XPS
  • C. Passive film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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