The characteristics of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides fabricated using pyrophosphoric acid process are reported. Using this process, high index change waveguides with step profile have been realized. Low-loss (0.7 dB/cm) channel waveguides have been also obtained by pyrophosphoric acid process. The loss is much lower than that given by conventional benzoic acid process. We show that the reason for low-loss waveguide fabrication is due to the uniform proton-exchange formed by this process, compared with the benzoic acid process.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)