Characteristics of agglomeration of various inclusion particles on molten steel surface

Hongbin Yin, Hiroyuki Shibata, Toshihiko Emi, Mikio Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Citations (Scopus)


The behavior of various inclusion particles at inert gas/molten steel interface was "in-situ" studied with a confocal scanning laser microscope. Solid CaO-Al2O3 and solid CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 inclusion particles were subjected to quick agglomeration to form clusters which densified and deformed later. Capillary attraction was found responsible for the agglomeration and densification. The capillary effect also operated between solid CaO-Al2O3 inclusion particle and liquid CaO-Al2O3 inclusion particle pairs, making the densification and deformation of the solid inclusion particles much easier. The attraction force was found to be in the range of 10-16- 10-13 N for different particles and extended to a distance of up to 100 μm. However, such capillary attraction was not at all found between liquid CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 inclusion particles. Even when the two liquid particles came in touch, merger took place only after contacting for a while. The merger of liquid CaO-Al2O3 particles was even more difficult for small particles of less than 7 μm, but easier for particles larger than 24 μm. These phenomena are discussed in terms of inert gas/oxide inclusions/liquid steel three-phase interfacial interaction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)946-955
Number of pages10
JournalIsij International
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • Agglomeration
  • Capillary effect
  • Collision
  • Laser microscope
  • Lime-aluminosilicate
  • Melt surface
  • Merger
  • Molten steel
  • Non-metallic inclusion
  • Steel cleanliness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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