Characteristics of a community-based distribution of home blood pressure in Ohasama in northern Japan

Yutaka Imai, Hiroshi Satoh, Kenichi Nagai, Mariko Sakuma, Hiromichi Sakuma, Naoyoshi Minami, Masanori Munakata, Junichiro Hashimoto, Toshio Yamagishi, Noriko Watanabe, Tamami Yabe, Akimitsu Nishiyama, Haruo Nakatsuka, Hiroshi Koyama, Keishi Abe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

147 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To evaluate the distribution, reference values and day-to-day variation of blood pressure of untreated subjects measured at home. Design: Cross-sectional study of a cohort. Setting: General community in northern Japan. Subjects: Blood pressure was measured in 871 subjects (mean±SD age 46.0 ± 19.5 years, range 7-98, constituting 38.7% of the local population of Uchikawama region, Ohasama) who were not receiving antihypertensive medication. Methods: Subjects measured their own blood pressure at home at least three times (mean ± SD 19.718.4) each morning using a semi-automatic oscillometric blood pressure measuring device. Screening blood pressure was measured once. Main outcome measures: Distribution of home blood pressure in the study population as a whole and with respect to age and sex, and the distribution of day-to-day variation of home blood pressure were determined. Results: Mean home blood pressure was 117.3 ± 13.4/69.3 ± 9.7mmHg (95% confidence interval 116.4-118.2/68.7-70.0). The 95th centile value was 143/85 mmHg, mean + SD 131/79 mmHg and mean ± 2SD 144/89 mmHg. Mean screening blood pressure was 126.2 ± 18.9/72.1 ± 11.7 mmHg (95th centile 159/92 mmHg). Age- and sex-specific 95th centile values as well as mean±SD were obtained. Mean + SD, mean + 2SD and the 95th centile values obtained as reference upper limits of home blood pressure from subjects identified as normotensive by screening blood pressure (n = 707) were 125/77, 137/86 and 134/83 mmHg, respectively. Home blood pressure increased gradually with increasing age in both men and women, although blood pressure was significantly higher in men until 50 years of age. Day-to-day variation of home systolic blood pressure also increased with age. Conclusions: Since the distribution of home blood pressure values was affected by age and sex, age- and sex-matched reference values for home blood pressure should be established. Home blood pressure values in elderly subjects should be evaluated carefully, since these exhibit greater day-to-day variation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1441-1449
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of hypertension
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1993 Dec


  • Age
  • Community
  • Distribution
  • Epidemiology
  • Home blood pressure
  • Reference value
  • Screening blood pressure
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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