Changes in inclusion characteristics during sampling of liquid steel

O. T. Ericsson, M. Lionet, A. V. Karasev, R. Inoue, P. G. Jönsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


In order to improve the process control during the steelmaking process, it is essential to obtain knowledge, as well as interpret information, on the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in liquid steel samples. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of different sampling conditions on the inclusion characteristics. The changes in number, size and composition of primary inclusions due to the precipitation of secondary inclusions are studied. This is investigated in laboratory scale samples from an Fe-10 mass-%Ni alloy as well as industrial steel samples with varying contents of oxygen and sulphur. The results show that in most cases, the inclusion population can be separated, using a size condition, into primary (≥0.6 μm) and secondary (<0.6 μm) inclusions. Overall, the Lollipop sample with a 6 mm thickness can be recommended, because most of the secondary inclusions in low sulphur steels can be removed from the total particle size distribution. However, during sampling of liquid steel containing high levels of sulphur, a significant amount of sulphides precipitate heterogeneously onto primary inclusions, making it impossible to use size or morphology to separate the population. Finally, the numbers of secondary inclusions in the steel samples were found to increase significantly with an increased sample cooling rate. However, the number of primary inclusions was found to be almost constant and independent of the sample cooling rate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-75
Number of pages9
JournalIronmaking and Steelmaking
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan
Externally publishedYes


  • Characteristics
  • Inclusions
  • Precipitation
  • Sampling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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