Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is now widely used as a means of neuromodulation, but the details of the mechanisms by which rTMS works remain unclarified. As a step forward to unveiling the neural phenomena occurring underneath the TMS coil, we conducted an electrophysiological study using awake and unanesthetized monkeys with subdural electrocorticogram (ECoG) electrodes implanted over the primary motor cortex (MI). We evaluated the effects of low-frequency (1 Hz) and high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS on the resting-state ECoG signals in the stimulated MI, as well as the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the contralateral hand. Following the 1-Hz rTMS application, the ECoG beta band power and the MEP amplitude were significantly decreased. Following the 10-Hz rTMS application, the ECoG high-gamma power and the MEP amplitude significantly increased. Given that beta and high-gamma activities in the ECoG reflect the synchronous firing and the firing frequency of cell assemblies, respectively, in local neural circuits, these results suggest that low-frequency rTMS inhibits neural activity by desynchronizing the firing activity of local circuits, whereas high-frequency rTMS facilitates neural activity by increasing the firing rate of cell assemblies in the local circuits.
- Beta power
- High-gamma power
- Macaque monkey
- Motor evoked potential (MEP)
- Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
- Resting-state electrocorticogram (ECoG)
ASJC Scopus subject areas