Cement mortars hybridized with zeolite and zeolite-like materials made of lignite bottom ash for heavy metal encapsulation

Kedsarin Pimraksa, Prinya Chindaprasirt, Tanwalak Huanjit, Clarence Tang, Tsugio Sato

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    22 Citations (Scopus)


    Bottom ash (BA) from Mae Moh lignite power plant was used to synthesize zeolite and zeolite-like materials. Low temperature synthesis (100-110 °C) was completed using SiO2 to Al2O3 with molar ratios of 2.94 and 2.92, respectively. Factors investigated that affect synthesis include particle size distribution, pretreatment of BA, concentration of alkali solution and liquid to solid ratio. The synthesized product qualities were characterized by mineralogical composition, morphology, specific surface area, pore size, pore volume and cation exchange capacity. Natrolite-K zeolite (NAT-K) was obtained with a solution of BA and 7 M KOH. Zeolite-like material (potassium aluminosilicate hydrate: KASH) was obtained using very fine BA and 9 M KOH solution. The NAT-K, KASH and BA powders were used to replace type I Portland cement at 0, 5,10,20 and 30% by weight to produce composite materials for heavy metal encapsulation. The compressive strength and bulk density of the NAT-K- or KASH-hybridized cement mortars were tested at 1, 7 and 28 days. The heavy metal encapsulation capacity was also tested using the 28-day cement mortar containing either 5 wt% NAT-K or KASH adsorbed with Cr, Ni and Cd ions. The results showed that 5 wt% of NAT-K could improve early strength of cement mortar and the 28-day specimens with 5-10 wt% of NAT-K replacement had compressive strength similar to that of the normal cement mortar. The NAT-K and KASH encapsulate Cr, Ni and Cd ions in the structures of cement mortar matrices more than 97%.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)31-41
    Number of pages11
    JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


    • Heavy metal encapsulation
    • Natrolite-K
    • Potassium aluminosilicate hydrate
    • Pozzolanic reaction
    • Zeolite hybridized cement mortar

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
    • Environmental Science(all)
    • Strategy and Management
    • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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