Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can promote type 2 inflammation but also drives immunoregulation through Foxp3+Treg expansion. How IL-33 is exported from cells to serve this dual role in immunosuppression and inflammation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the biological consequences of IL-33 activity are dictated by its cellular source. Whereas IL-33 derived from epithelial cells stimulates group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2)-driven type 2 immunity and parasite clearance, we report that IL-33 derived from myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) suppresses host-protective inflammatory responses. Conditional deletion of IL-33 in CD11c-expressing cells resulted in lowered numbers of intestinal Foxp3+Treg cells that express the transcription factor GATA3 and the IL-33 receptor ST2, causing elevated IL-5 and IL-13 production and accelerated anti-helminth immunity. We demonstrate that cell-intrinsic IL-33 promoted mouse dendritic cells (DCs) to express the pore-forming protein perforin-2, which may function as a conduit on the plasma membrane facilitating IL-33 export. Lack of perforin-2 in DCs blocked the proliferative expansion of the ST2+Foxp3+Treg subset. We propose that perforin-2 can provide a plasma membrane conduit in DCs that promotes the export of IL-33, contributing to mucosal immunoregulation under steady-state and infectious conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy