We have studied the magnetic field effects (MFEs) on the charge-transfer fluorescence and transient photocurrent of a 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene-doped poly(N-vinylcarbazole) film, which reflect the recombination and escape yields of the carriers, respectively. The recombination yield dependence of the external magnetic field (B) clearly shows two types of the MFEs, growth with increasing B due to the hyperfine mechanism (HFM) and a negative dip due to the level-crossing mechanism (LCM). On the other hand, the escape yield indicates complementary MFEs with a sharp decrease in yield with increasing B and then a positive dip. Simultaneous observation of the HFM- and LCM-MFEs proves the stepwise hole-hopping mechanism rather the long-range hole-jumping one. The quantitative analysis of the recombination and escape MFEs is performed using the stochastic Liouville equations (SLE) for a one-dimensional lattice model in which the stepwise hole hops take place between the nearest neighbor carbazole units with spin conservation. The SLE analysis provides the recombination and hole transfer rate constants of 7.0 × 107 and 4.5 × 108 s-1, respectively. The boundary site number for the ion pairs in the one-dimensional model is estimated by the best fit to the experimental results. The interionic distance of the boundary ion pair in the one-dimensional model including eight sites agrees with the thermalization distance in the Onsager model. Hence, it is concluded that the elementary processes in the Onsager model applied to molecular amorphous solids are the stepwise hole hops rather than a long-range hole jump.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry